This is the longest lifecycle phase: After the Construction is completed, the infrastructure asset starts to be used for its intended purpose and needs to be maintained to minimize the risk of premature degradation. Operation and maintenance models differ depending on the project: While in some cases, the person or institution that owns the infrastructure asset is in charge of running the infrastructure asset during its lifecycle, in other cases, a third party or concessionaire will manage and maintain the asset. The project’s sustainability performance – including ensuring low energy consumption, correct waste disposal, or adequate noise and pollution in the area – will be directly impacted by the capacity to ensure efficient operation and maintenance.