Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST)

Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST)


Stanford University

Type(s) of Tool

Modelling ToolsSimulate economic, social, and physical systems to help planners optimize outcomes from different decisions.


Natural Infrastructure

Lifecycle Phase(s)

Strategic PlanningPublic authorities identify the needs and long-term vision for infrastructure development.

Open Source


Language Availability


Country of Origin





The Integrated Valuation of Ecosystems Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) is a suite of open-source software models to map and value ecosystem services, including different models designed for terrestrial, freshwater, marine and coastal ecosystems. The tool helps explore how changes in ecosystems can lead to changes in the flows of many different benefits to people. Thereby, InVEST supports entities that deal with natural resources in their management and in balancing of environmental and economic goals, while avoiding degradation and depletion.

Tool Outcome

InVEST enables decision makers to assess quantified tradeoffs associated with alternative management choices and to identify areas where investment in natural capital can enhance human development and conservation.

Sustainability Criteria

InVest features a set of different models that individually and / or combined support sustainable ecosystem service management. The models help analyze:
– Habitat quality
– Habitat risk assessment
– Pollinator abundance
– Forest carbon edge effect
– Carbon storage & sequestration
– Coastal blue carbon
– Annual water yield
– Nutrient delivery ratio
– Sediment delivery ratio
– Scenic quality provision
– Recreation & tourism
– Wave energy production
– Offshore wind energy production
– Marine finfish aquacultural production
– Fisheries
– Crop production
– Seasonal water yield
– Urban cooling
– Urban flood risk mitigation

Further supporting tools are available as well.